Education Guides

Five Essential Components Of Effective Reading Instruction

INF4720Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds in spoken words. Phonemic awareness is the understanding that the sounds of spoken language work together to make words. Phonemes are the smallest identifiable units of spoken language. Students need to learn:

- Spoken words consist of individual sounds (phonemes).

- Words can be segmented into sounds, and these sounds can be blended and manipulated.

- Phonemic awareness skills are used to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds to spell words.

PHONICS is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language). Readers use these relationships to recognize familiar words accurately and automatically. Phonics is also a key to decoding unfamiliar words. Students need to learn:

- Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet

- The alphabetic principle: the ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words

- Phonics elements

- The application of phonics elements to reading and writing

VOCABULARYis the development of stored information about the meanings of words necessary for communication. Vocabulary is developed both formally and informally through daily experiences as well as explicit instruction. Students need to learn:

- The meanings for most of the words in a text so that they can understand what they read

- To apply a variety of strategies to learn word meanings

- To make connections between words and concepts

- To use "new" words accurately in oral and written language

FLUENCYis the ability to read texts accurately and quickly. Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Students need to learn:

- To automatically recognize words

- To increase reading rate while maintaining accuracy

COMPREHENSION involves using strategies for understanding, remembering, and communicating with others about what has been read. Comprehension strategies are sets of steps that purposeful, active readers use to make sense of texts. Listening comprehension is vital in the pre_reading stages of development. The development of reading comprehension in students is vital for beginning readers through grade twelve. Students must be able to use comprehension strategies such as summarization, questioning, question answering, story maps, graphic organizers, cooperative grouping, prior knowledge, monitoring, and visualization and the combination of these strategies. Students need to learn:

- To read both narrative and expository texts

- To understand and remember what they read

- To relate their own knowledge or experiences to texts

- To use comprehension strategies to improve their comprehension

- To communicate with others about what is read

Learn more about Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction.


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